6. General conclusions and recommendations
1. The car free city area is quite well realizable
Unsurmountable problems and bottlenecks are not to be expected. However several
conditions have to be observed:
- good public transportation in the city area as well as outside;
- a density articulation tuned to public transportation;
- a clear separation between car and non car areas;
- personnel input in any city area of some size to enforce the car free character;
- a limited road system has to be at the disposal of the goods and services traffic;
- in principle individual residences must remain accessible to emergency traffic;
- the means applied to enforce the car free character must not cause a certain negative
2. It is of importance to exploit optimally the advantages and (new) possibilities of a car
free city area and to arrange for the inhabitants to benefit from these advantages This
increases the appealing character of such a area and lowers the (psychological) threshold
to exchange the advantages of car-ownership for other advantages.
reduced car mobility there has to be:
- an adequate solution to possible accessibility problems for goods and services traffic,
- specific types of servicing and service,
- excellent facilities and infrastructure for non car movements and
- high public space quality.
3. The car free city area has positive effects in many areas for area inhabitants as well
as for society.
In respect of environment, energy costs and space use the differences with a non car free
city area are substantial. Projected on regional or national level one car free city area can hardly make a significant difference. However, this is indeed the case if several car free city areas of some size would be
realized. A fringe effect of a rather great number of car free city areas in a limited area or within a
region is not only the production but also the attraction of car traffic will be
influenced. The combined effect of several car free city areas is therefore expected to be higher than
the sum of the effects of each car free city area.
4. From a feasibility point of view location and size of a car free city area is tied to
If budgetary neutrality between a car free and a similar non car free residential area is the
starting point, the minimum required size of a large car free residential area is approx.
3000 residences. If one manned entrance suffices the minimum size is
approx. 2300 residences.
With such a size social feasibility demands linking up with medium sized to large cities so
that sufficient marketing potential may be tapped. An alternative to large car free city
areas are smaller car free residential areas of 100 to 400 residences which enlarges the
applicability range and siting possibilities.
It is meaningful to further investigate in what manner such rather small car free
residential neighborhoods could be elaborated in drafts.
5. The effects of car free city areas link up quite well with important objectives and
Like in the Note Traffic and Environment, the Fourth Note on Physical Planning and the
Second Structural Framework Traffic and Transportation. The car free city area is a
'source oriented' measure and therefore extremely effective. Especially
extraordinary is the fact a car free city area unites in itself several qualities and positive
effects. As a means it is of an other magnitude and an other range than most of the means
indicated in the Notes mentioned but therefore not less valuable.
6. In view of the programmed numbers of residences to be constructed in the
"Randstad" and in view of the Government objective to reduce car mobility by 25%,
realizing one or several car free residential areas may be well worth the
7. Elaborating the developed concept of a car free city area in consumer aimed
promotional pictures will enable replacement of possible prejudices by a more realistic and
business like approach, also with Local Authorities.
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